Now that I am older, and hopefully, wiser, I am all the more inspired and determined to try my best to attend most if not all the dawn masses for nine days. I told myself, this year is a perfect time to give it my best shot. It’s a long overdue “gift” to God and if I can inspire a few more souls to do this, too, I will be very happy. It is actually a little tougher this time because I am no longer in my youthful days (wink!) but I feel I am in a better place because I now have a husband (a perfect companion!), who is also determined to go on this simple spiritual journey with me, and of course, willing to drive us to the churches every day for nine days.
We decided that we will be visiting nine different churches in Quezon City (QC) instead of simply going to the nearest church because we want to make the journey deeper and more meaningful. We also want to share the experience with others, with the hope that it will inspire you to embark on your own simple devotion and thanksgiving with your loved ones as you prepare for Christmas. We’re also considering this pilgrimage as a perfect way to read more about the lives of our saints and the history of our churches. We hope this post can also be a helpful guide to those (especially QC residents) who are not yet sure where to go and in what time do the dawn masses actually begin. (Note: I had written this blog over the 9-day period so beginning from Day 5, I began writing the entries on a daily basis. The first post covered Days 1 to 4 and was published last Dec. 20 and Day 9 entry was published today, Dec. 24.)
DAY 1 (December 16): Sacred Heart of Jesus Parish (established in October 1941)
#28 Scout Ybardolaza St., Kamuning, Quezon City; tel nos. (02) 929-0419 and 415-435
Simbang Gabi here begins at 4:00 am.
We decided to begin our Simbang Gabi here because this is among our favorite churches as a couple. We used to live in New Manila so we often attended Sunday masses here or the Pink Sisters Convent. (Admittedly, there is a minor planning error on our first Simbang Gabi because we thought the mass here will also begin at 4:30 am, similar to the schedules of the other churches! Fortunately, we arrived early enough to make it to the Gospel but because we were late, we had to stand outside, near one of the doors.) We considered it another blessing because one of our favorite priests (and the current parish priest), Reverend Father Jerome Marquez, SVD, officiated the mass, our first Simbang Gabi as a married couple. We admire him because his sermons are always heart-felt and he manages to inject stories and humor when he shares the Word of our Lord. We also appreciate the fact that he is the type of priest who blesses the churchgoers (after the holy masses) with the blessed water so diligently and passionately that many are reached (of course, those in front may feel like the water is some glorious rain pouring down on them–I am sure no one is complaining!) [Father Jerome, if you are reading this, know that many of us really thank you for such simple act of sharing God’s touch–keep the blessed water pouring over us and God bless your strong arms!]On this special day, the Gospel is from Luke 7:19-23, where the story of Jesus miracles and healing is shared. Father Jerome also spoke about the true meaning of the Misa de Aguinaldo, that of thanksgiving because we were given the best and most important “aguinaldo”, through Jesus Christ. The mass also reminds us to honor Mama Mary, the Mother of God, because she bore Jesus for nine months and became the instrument through which we were able to experience God’s love. As a Catholic, we grew up knowing our sacraments and Church teachings but embarking on this simple devotion made me appreciate our faith and traditions more. Looking at the huge crowd and families who woke up earlier than usual and walked/commuted or driven to the church at a very early hour is moving and inspiring. I felt a sense of community.
DAY 2 (December 17): Parish of the Hearts of Jesus and Mary (formally established in 1988, although, according to Erineus*– I assume he is a blogging priest–it used to be an old chapel prior to its formal establishment)
Daily Mirror St. cor. Bulletin St., West Triangle, Quezon City; tel. nos. (02) 372-1037 and 371-9102
Simbang Gabi here begins at 4:30 am.This beautiful church is a newly-discovered place of worship for me and hubby (JR). It was only our second time to visit this church and the first time was borne out of a desire to discover new churches in our immediate neighborhood. It is a beautiful church and upon checking in Google, I discovered it is among couples’ favorite churches for weddings, particularly those who prefer the intimacy of smaller venues.
We were happy to be seated near the front as we arrived around 4:15 am. We also appreciated the fact that the early church goers were reciting the rosary prayer before the mass. Therefore, early-birds who really want to do more prayers may want to arrive at 4:00 am so you can also join the rosary prayer.For this second day of the Simbang Gabi, the Gospel (Matthew 1:1-17) and sermon centered on the genealogy of Jesus Christ, taking all of us into the generations of people and families before and during the time of our Savior. The priest spoke about the need to know and understand human frailties and stories of the people in Jesus’ time because it is only through this appreciation can we also understand our humanity and our participation in the divine mission. This mass reminded me once again of our human weaknesses–how it is so difficult to remain good and hopeful in the middle of chaos, confusion, and struggles. This will always be the biggest challenge to all of us, people from all walks of life and faith–we are often confronted with questions like, “How do we remain in the right path amid a world where there is hatred, hopelessness, and wars?” In the Philippines, we are asked to reflect on questions like, “How do we remain steadfast and pure when, everyday, we see and experience poverty, corruption, and spiritual loss?” I hope these questions will accompany us as we prepare for Christmas and greet another year. *As we end the Day 2 reflections, I would also like to invite you to visit the blog of Erineus, where he shared the moving story of Sandy Greenberg. (The complete credits are in his blog.) The link is here.
DAY 3 (December 18): Sta. Rita de Cascia Parish (established in 1957)
South Lawin Avenue, Philam Homes, Quezon City; tels. nos. (02) 929-8280 and 928-8930
Simbang Gabi here begins at 4:30 am. (Note: The church is fully air-conditioned so bring a light jacket or sweater as it can get a little chilly at these early hours.)Like the Parish of the Hearts of Jesus and Mary, this is also another favorite church for weddings. More than the beauty of the place, this Church has a special place in the hearts of devotees because it a shrine for Saint Rita of Cascia, known as the “Saint of the Impossible.” She is known to have interceded for many miracles and healing. (If you want to know more about the life of St. Rita of Cascia, you may go to this link.) JR and I also discovered this church very recently so we also looked forward to our second visit, and this time, for the 3rd day of our Simbang Gabi. For this day, the gospel is from Matthew 1:18-24, which narrates the visit of the Lord’s angel to Joseph, informing him about the birth of Christ through Mother Mary. The officiating priest spoke about the importance of the meaning of Jesus Christ’s physical manifestation. He narrated a bittersweet love story where a lady eventually fell in love with the mailman who brings the letters of her overseas-based boyfriend! It was a very interesting sermon, inspiring anticipation–the priest narrated it with such humor that many people laughed when he eventually reached the end of the story, revealing how the love-struck lady waited for the letters everyday, maybe eventually seeing the face of her boyfriend in the mailman! How is the story related to our communion with Christ? It reminds us how we are truly loved–it may sound ‘cliche-ish’ but there is no other way to say it: Jesus had to come down here, live like us and with us, and to suffer for us. I think it also reminds us how important it is to be physically present for our loved ones. In our busy and preoccupied lives these days, we sometimes forget the importance of authentic presence in the lives of those around us. I hope that this simple story will remind all of us to simply be there for others (even if they are total strangers) who might need our love and presence. More importantly, perhaps, let us be present in the moment, making each one an opportunity to say “thank you” simply because we are there, right on that spot.
DAY 4 (December 19): Saint Jude Thaddeus Quasi Parish
Zamboanga St, Brgy. Nayong Kanluran, Quezon City (near West and Quezon Avenues)
The Simbang Gabi here begins at 4:30 am.Although we live in a neighboring barangay, this is the nearest Church to our home. I hope I can share more about this Church but there is really no official account or document available online. This is another special church to me and JR because when we first visited it, we didn’t realize that it was the Feast of Christ the King and so, by the work of serendipity, we were blessed with the chance to join a procession (another first to our life as a married couple!) It was another simple soulful experience because we didn’t have lunch yet (we had a heavy brunch) and the route of the procession was rather far. By the time the procession and mass ended at about 8:00 pm, we were already hungry. However, it was moving for us because we felt it was a perfect way to find the simple “home” of St. Jude in Quezon City, offer a little sacrifice, and participate in a community prayer.
Of course, Saint Jude Thaddeus, compared with the other saints, is quite familiar to many of us. He is known as the “Saint of Hope and Impossible Causes” but aside from this and the fact that he is among Jesus’ 12 Apostles, we know little about him, right? I therefore encourage you to get to know more about him. You may go to this link for a more detailed account. Meanwhile, the website of the National Shrine of St. Jude Thaddeus (Philippines) is found here.For our 4th day of Simbang Gabi, the Gospel (Luke 1:5-25) is about the story of the visit of Archangel Gabriel to Zechariah. Angel Gabriel told him that he and his wife, Elizabeth, will be blessed with a child. Because both were old, Zechariah did not, at first, believe the angel. The Gospel reminds us about faith. We can all relate to the story of Zechariah, right? Sometimes, especially in our most trying moments, it is difficult to keep our faith. When we are faced with challenges, it is very very difficult to remain faithful and hopeful. We all have our imperfections and weaknesses and problems make the journey even more difficult! When we experience sufferings, we sometimes doubt God’s presence.
Today’s mass reminded me to believe more in God’s love and miracles. I feel that I am not a credible ‘messenger’ of God’s love because of my mistakes and sins and sometimes, I really get scared or have some doubts…but, yes, I am humbled that, in the most crucial times, I experience his wonderful miracles, big or small. I am sure you have those experiences, too. Let’s keep those miracles in our hearts and make them our sources of hope, strength, and inspiration. Let us be the small miracles for others. Through this post, I am also sending a prayer to you who are reading this piece at this very moment–I wish you strength, joys, and an even stronger faith! Whatever you may be struggling with at this point, I know you can do it, with God’s graces. Keep the faith.
DAY 5 (December 20): Santo Domingo Church or the National Shrine of Our Lady of the Holy Rosary of La Naval (first established in 1587 in Intramuros; one of the original structures constructed in 1864 and destroyed in World War II, 1942; the current building in Quezon City inaugurated in 1954)
#537 Quezon Ave., Quezon City; tel. nos. (02) 712-62-71 to 74
The Simbang Gabi here begins at 4:30 am. (Praying of the rosary begins at 4:00 am.)Santo Domingo Church was not in our original list because we have nine churches listed down already but then JR suggested that we also include it. I readily agreed not only because it is an important church in our history, it is also another church that I enjoy visiting. (I’ll tell you another reason: lighting candles there is a very calming experience). Of course, many of you may already know that the Church had been declared by the Philippine government as a National Cultural Treasure in October 2012. Through this declaration, the Santo Domingo-La Naval is recognized as both an institution and a structure and a repository of modern art.
It has a very rich history and a survivor of a difficult past and massive destruction. For instance, the June 1863 earthquake destroyed the Church as well as other buildings and churches built around this period. Another massive earthquake, a huge fire, and the ravage of World War II had destroyed it. However, the miraculous statue of Our Lady of the Most Holy Rosary survived all these calamities and destruction. Nowadays, Our Lady is enshrined at the left side of the altar (if you are facing the altar). [Sources of the historical notes are given in the links below.]Among the things that really touched me about today’s Simbang Gabi was the massive crowd. The church, with its 5,000** seating capacity, was full so that many people stood by the doors, outside, and on the floor at the front of the altar. JR and I noticed that people (especially the young ones) who cannot find seats automatically sat down on the floor by the altar. This is the first time that I have seen such a practice in a sort of ‘formal’ church setting. Whoever began this practice or allowed this practice must be commended and thanked because it really shows how much the church is reaching out to more faithfuls especially the youth. I liked the idea of allowing young people to be ‘free’ in expressing their faith and that includes allowing them to sit on the tile floors! I see this to be an act of ‘opening up’, embracing our differences, and participating in a more genuine communion, Catholics or not. (I do believe in a non-discriminating God; our membership in any faith or church institution must not get in the way of our spiritual growth. The physical or material structures, documents, traditions, and images are important for our expression of faith and learning but let us not forget that the true path is only through the heart.) JR and I also appreciated the whole ceremony, homily, and the sermon. There were several officiating priests (if I remember correctly, four priests assisted the lead officiating priest) and while the ceremony looked a little bit formal, the atmosphere was still celebratory. The Gospel from Luke 1:39-45 took us into the journey of Mother Mary to Elizabeth. The sermon was very touching because the priest spoke about the difficulties of waking up at such an early hour, even saying something like, “Alam ko na mahirap gumising sa oras na ganito, masarap matulog at managinip, di ba?” The crowd laughed and one can feel that this statement somehow showed the priest’s joy and delight in seeing the huge crowd, very early in the morning, praying together. As I had written earlier, it gives me joy to see these early morning crowd, going to Church and praying together, not really worried about losing some sleep and bigger eye bags. 🙂
This is another joyful experience for me and JR and I hope that this piece is also inspiring you to celebrate and prepare for Christmas through simple devotional practices like the Simbang Gabi.
**Sourced from several blogs and articles but the Pilgrim’s Knapsack blog mentioned that the Church has 7,200 standing capacity while the sitting capacity is 2,000.
DAY 6 (December 21): Saint Paul the Apostle Parish
#3 Sct. Rallos cor. Timog Ave., Mo. Ignacia & Sct. Santiago St. Brgy Laging Handa, Quezon City; tel. nos. (02) 414-5503 / 371-9690
Simbang Gabi here begins at 4:30 am.This church is very familiar to me as I am a QC resident for many years already. I have always liked this church because it is probably among the first churches in QC that established 24-hour adoration chapels. The location helps a lot as well because it is along Timog Avenue so I can imagine that this is a favorite refuge for urban dwellers who may have the sudden urge to pray and meditate at any time of the day.
Saint Paul the Apostle is the patron saint of missionaries, evangelists, writers, journalists, authors, public workers, rope and saddle makers, and tent makers (Catholic Online, n.d.). St. Paul was originally a Jew and later converted to Christianity. He was known as “Saul, the persecutor of the Christian church” before becoming the great missionary evangelist (Peach, n.d.). In fact, his conversion is one of the most important points in Church history (Ciresi, 2002).For today’s Simbang Gabi, the gospel is actually the same as yesterday’s (Luke 1: 39-45). At first, I thought that the officiating priest was making a mistake but after a few seconds, he also explained that it is indeed the same as yesterday’s. The story is centered on the visit of Our Lady, Mother Mary, to Elizabeth, the lady who was blessed with a child despite her old age. In this visit, Elizabeth felt the baby in her womb to have “leaped with joy” upon hearing the voice of Mary.
This is a beautiful story, isn’t it? I am sure that many of us have personally experienced such “leaps of joy” from the wombs of expectant mothers (or for those who have been mothers already, the leaps of joys from your own babies). Can you then imagine the overwhelming leap of joy of a baby who has just heard the voice of Mary? This is probably among the most heart-warming stories in the Bible. It reminds us about the powerful meaning of Jesus’ birth and the gift of our Virgin Mother as well as the unfathomable joys of experiencing God’s voice and miracles. We all want to imagine how Elizabeth’s baby inside her womb felt! I am sure words are not enough to describe such kind of joy.
The ceremony was also very memorable because, for the first time, I have seen female altar servers! For me, this is a very liberating experience, one that must be practiced more widely. I really think women should also be allowed to serve at the altars and not relegate the role to male sacristans strictly. I have nothing against male altar servers but it is simply beautiful to see both male and female altar servers serving the Lord through the Holy Mass. I wondered about the practice (i.e., if it is already allowed in Catholic churches) and told myself to Google about it after mass. Indeed, the practice is allowed with the permission and guidance of diocesan Bishops, as per the 1994 statement of the Pontifical Council for the Interpretation of Legislative Texts. I don’t want to misquote the complete explanation so please go to this link for a better read. (I also read that there is still an ongoing debate about this practice but it may take years to resolve so let us hope that the church will be able to find a path that is both wise and inclusive.)As in the previous days, today’s Simbang Gabi is another joyful experience. It was also uplifting when so many people raised their hands when the priest asked whom among us has so far completed the Simbang Gabi. It was indeed great to see such commitment and devotion and the church full to its capacity (and even beyond) on the 6th day of Simbang Gabi.
DAY 7 (December 22): Santuario de Santa Philomena, Most Holy Redeemer Parish (established in 1994 although it began as a small chapel in the 1960s)
Malac St., Masambong, Quezon City (near Del Monte Avenue); tel. no. (02) 365-1011
Simbang Gabi here begins at 4:00 am. (For more details on the schedule, please refer to the image below, before Day 8.)
#40 Lantana St., Cubao, Quezon City; tel. no. (02) 725 5962
Simbang Gabi here begins at 4:30 am.We have not experienced attending mass here (before today’s Simbang Gabi) but we have a beautiful memory of this magnificent cathedral. It was on a Holy Thursday this year when JR and I were doing Visita Iglesia. It was our 7th church for the evening, our last stop before going home. Because it is an important commemoration, we assumed that all churches will be open the whole evening or at least until late in the evening. We were therefore surprised that upon arriving at the Cathedral, the staff were already closing the heavy doors. (There were still few people inside but the staff were no longer allowing newly-arrived visitors to come in.) Of course, I am the type of person who simply does not give up so we approached the male staff assigned at the main door and begged him to let us in. At first, he said that it is no longer possible as the church is closing for the day already. I tried appealing a second time, explaining that we were doing our Visita Iglesia and that this is our 7th church already. You can just imagine our joys and gratitude when he pushed the door further to let us in, with a hesitant but gracious smile! God indeed answers in small and big ways! (Whoever you are, Kuya, salamat po sa pagbubukas ng pinto!) Upon entering, we were immediately embraced in awe by the sheer beauty of the place. The Cathedral is a work of God, manifested in the great talents who envisioned and built this magnificent house of prayer and worship. I recalled that special evening as we sat at the Cathedral today, my eyes and heart taking everything in, from the magnificent altar and painted ceiling, to the glittering Christmas lights and cool morning breezes that graciously come in from the opened doors, as if dancing with the music of the birds. It is a beautiful morning. For today’s reading (Luke 1:57-66), we are again transported to the story of Elizabeth and the birth of his son, whom they named “John,” contrary to the tradition of naming sons after the names of their fathers. The priest talked about our similar tradition where we give importance to the name of our fathers so that we continue their names for our sons, and simply add suffixes such as “Jr.”, “II”, “III”, etc. Of course, traditions are important in that we give honor and meaning to our past and there is nothing wrong with continuing the names of our fathers.
However, we are also reminded that births indicate new beginnings. We are invited to open up and welcome new directions, in the same way that Elizabeth and Zechariah opened up to and embraced the great mission that God has planned for John. Similar to the sermon yesterday (7th day of Simbang Gabi), the priest also spoke about the importance of embracing our purpose and mission.Let us then reflect again on our lives and our choices, with a renewed hope and faith, appreciating once more that we have God to give us clear directions. I know it is easier said than done, right?! It is sometimes difficult to find clear directions! We are always confronted with “crossroads”, not really knowing which is the better path. But know what? It is alright to get lost sometimes. Even when we’re driving around, I’d always tell JR (he drives and I am his navigator), “I am also not sure where we are going, ok? I will just follow my instinct and inner map (sorry, I have no word for that “thing”) so we might get lost, too, so just chill…hehe…I am sure we will eventually find our way!” I guess that pretty sums up what I want to say today. Let us relax (chill!), do our best not to get lost, but if we ever lose focus and directions every now and then, we will eventually reach our destination. DAY 9 (December 24): Saint Joseph’s Convent of Perpetual Adoration (also known as the Pink Sisters Convent)
#71, Dona M. Hemady Avenue corner 11th Street, New Manila, Quezon City; tel. no. (02) 722 8828
Simbang Gabi here begins at 5:00 am.We deliberately reserved Day 9 for Saint Joseph’s Convent of Perpetual Adoration (Pink Sisters Convent) because we wanted to ‘celebrate’ this simple pilgrimage by going to the Church that we often visited when we were just newly-married. As I mentioned earlier, we used to live in New Manila and the Pink Sisters Convent was within a walking distance from our old address. We would sometimes take the car but I would definitely count our leisurely walks as among the simplest but happiest moments in our lives as a newly-married couple. The quiet neighborhood is ideal for walks (and jogging!) and so JR and I would really relish those moments when we can just talk and laugh together like kids. There used to be a quaint coffee and pastry shop along Hemady Street and I remember dropping by there after praying at the Pink Sisters’. However, we’ve noticed that it is no longer there now.
As many who have already visited the convent will also appreciate, the place invites one to simply be in the moment, pray, and reflect. We had missed going to this place so much so we decided this will be our 9th church for the Simbang Gabi. As always, we felt the solemnity of the place immediately, as we took our seats near the statue of Saint Joseph. Before the mass began, an old lady who came from the right side (by the aisle) nudged us to move to the left. (Later at home, JR and I would discuss that we found this episode a little amusing…we surmised that we had taken the favorite spot of the old but gracious lady!) The lady turned out to be a very sweet one. While I was writing down my prayer-petition, the lady handed JR a small prayer card with the favorite prayer of Pope Francis. Isn’t that so sweet?! The simple gesture touched us so much so I want to share the prayer with you. According to JR, the lady said that it is a very powerful prayer and that Pope Francis prays it every day. Here it is:
I hope you can also keep this and make it a daily prayer. (To the old lady who sat beside us today, please know that we appreciate your kind gesture so much! Thank you! May God bless you with more joys, continuing good health, and abundance.)We were happily surprised that the officiating priest in today’s Simbang Gabi was the same priest who officiated the mass during our Simbang Gabi at the Hearts of Jesus and Mary Parish (on Day 2)! It was like a reunion. 🙂 I had wanted to approach him after the mass but he was busy conversing with some of the churchgoers when we saw him outside after the mass. JR and I were also taking pictures happily of the nice garden and I didn’t notice his leaving. Sayang, it would most likely make him glad to know that we were blessed with the opportunity to hear mass (through him) twice during this year’s Simbang Gabi!
The Gospel (from Luke 2:1-14) brings us back to the time when Jesus was born in a manger and an angel announced His birth to a group of shepherds watching over their flock. The priest shared several stories but the most important one that I had carried with me was about his discussion on poverty. He said that poverty is not just about physical or material poverty but also about spiritual and moral poverty. I think this is a timely reflection as we celebrate Christmas and end another year. When we think about poverty in the Philippines, we are often confronted with issues on hunger, unemployment, inequity, crime, and corruption.However, it is very rare indeed that we are encouraged to dwell on or analyze spiritual poverty. Our books, literature, mass media, and school curriculum sorely lack encouragement on how discourses on poverty and social development may be dealt with, strongly anchored on philosophical and spiritual underpinnings. Why so? I think there is a need to look into this area more deeply. For one, the Philippines is a very ‘Christianized’ country, but ironically, it is still perceived as having among the most corrupt governments in the world. It does not make sense, right? We are very prayerful and God-fearing people but on one hand, we cannot seem to produce (and vote for?) honest leaders. I am sure many of you are wondering how can a God-fearing nation allow corruption to destroy our people and institutions this far. I have the same questions. This has really been a challenging but very uplifting and joyful journey for me and JR. Words are not enough to describe completely the inner joys and peace that began to grip me (slowly at first), as we went through our simple pilgrimage. I am not sure if I am just imagining it but I feel a renewed serenity and trust. (I am almost teary-eyed as I type this!)
The thing is, I am not your typical religious Catholic. I don’t like labels but would likely consider myself more of an ecumenical type of believer if someone will ask me (that is, I don’t feel any discomfort attending services or praying in other churches/faiths because I believe that there is only one Supreme Being even if we call him in many different names). I would then refrain from labeling this as simply a Catholic exercise. I am also, still, a work-in-progress. I am sure there will still be sad and challenging days. And I am very sure, I will still get cranky and ‘ballistic’–particularly over poor customer service, my perennial source of frustration–every now and then (wink!). However, these renewed joys and trust are unexpected gifts; they brought me to a place beyond what our traditions and rituals normally bring us. It was really tough (!) to wake up at such an early hour for nine straight days but it is certainly nothing compared with all the graces and miracles of our lives (and this refers to all of us, not just to Christians or Catholics!). It is like being bitten by a very small ant in exchange for a life of endless joys and abundance!
We are also grateful for the chance to do this and be able to pray and grow together again as a married couple. I am sure that many of you out there would also like to do this but circumstances and obligations do prevent you from enjoying a similar journey. Nevertheless, I would still encourage you to try doing it next year (or in any other year), even in your own churches and traditions, and who knows, you’d end up writing about it in a blog, too. 🙂
In the meantime, I wish you all a happy and love-filled Christmas! (With this blog is a special prayer for you who are reading this right now–may you solve all your problems and challenges through God’s graces, fulfill your promises, enjoy a blessed and joyful life, grow spiritually, and experience great abundance. If you are touched and blessed with this blog, please do share and together, let’s create a better Philippines, a more love-filled world, for all!)
All photos were taken through a mobile phone camera (LG G4). This is not a paid blog. (I do not ask for any donation but I hope you can plant a tree on your birthday/s.)
Catholic Online. (n.d.) Saint Paul. Retrieved from http://www.catholic.org/saints/saint.php?saint_id=91
Ciresi, S. (2002). The life of St. Paul. Retrieved from https://www.catholicculture.org/culture/library/view.cfm?recnum=8219
Peach, D. (n.d.) Apostle Paul, Biography and Profile. Retrieved from http://www.whatchristianswanttoknow.com/apostle-paul-biography-and-profile/